Do you patients complain about poor sleep quality, falling asleep or morning headache? It is possible that they may have sleep apnea.
In fact, Up to 6% of the world’s adult population suffers from sleep apnea2,3 – increasing to 77% in obese people4– and many people do not know that they have it.
Sleep apnea patients would stop breathing during sleep. Such events can happen hundreds of times during sleep and each may last for a few seconds to a few minutes.
The patient usually wakes exhausted from lack of sleep and oxygen.
There are three types of sleep apnea:
Sleep apnea can occur in all age groups and body morphologies but there are several factors that dramatically increase the likelihood of sleep apnea:
Identifying the presence of two or three of the common symptoms of sleep apnea indicates that a sleep test may be an appropriate next step in the diagnosis.
Co-morbidities of sleep apnea include:
Clinical studies indicate that the sleep apnea causes oxygen desaturation. Prolonged deficiency in oxygen can cause damage to the normal function of many organs and increase the risk of developing the followings:
A cycle of more than five times per hour indicates sleep apnea:
Less than 5 interruption per hour
|Mild sleep apnea||
Between 5 and 15 interruptions per hour
|Moderate sleep apnea||
16 to 30 interruptions per hour
Severe sleep apnea
|More than 30 interruption per hour|
1.Obsructive sleep apnea – a guide for GP’s, British Lung Foundation (NHS)
2. O’Keefe, et.al., Evidence supporting routine Polysomnography before bariatric surgery, in,Obesity Surgery, January 2014
3. Chronic respiratory diseases, The World Health Organizaton, www.who.int/gard/publicaitons/chronic_respiratory_diseases.pdf viewed 21 May 2015
4. Sleep breathing disorders, in, European Respiratory Society Whitebook, Chapter 23
5. Patient information series – Sleep mini series #4, in, Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Heart Disease, American Throacici Society
6. Logan, et.al.High prevalence of unrecognized sleep apnoea in drug-resistant hypertention, in, Journal of Hypertension, 2001
7. Einhorn, et.al., Prevalence of sleep apnea in a population of adults with type 2 diabetes Mellitus, in, Endocrine Practice, 2007; 13(4):355-362
8. Peppard PE, Young T, Palta M, Skatrud J (2000): Prospective study of the association between sleep-disordered breathing and hypertension. NEJM 342(19): 1378-1384
9. Logan, et.al.High prevalence of unrecognized sleep apnoea in drug-resistant hypertention, in, Journal of Hypertension, 2001
10. Einhorn, et.al., Prevalence of sleep apnea in a population of adults with type 2 diabetes Mellitus, in, Endocrine Practice, 2007; 13(4):355-362
11. Meslier N, Gagnadoux F, Giraud P, Person C, Ouksel H, Urban T, Racineux JL (2003): Impaired glucose-insulin metabolism in males with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Eur Respir J 22(1): 156-160
12. Bottini P, Dottorini ML, Cristina Cordoni M, Casucci G, Tantucci C (2003): Sleep-disordered breathing in nonobese diabetic subjects with autonomic neuropathy. Eur Respir J 22: 654- 660
13. Elmasry A, Lindberg E, Berne C, Janson C, Gislason T, Awad Tageldin M, Boman G (2001): Sleep-disordered breathing and glucose metabolism in hypertensive men: a population-based study. J Intern Med 249(2): 153-161
14. Teran-Santos J., Jimenz-gomez Al., & Cordero-Guevara, J. (1999). The association between sleep apnoea and the risk of traffic accidents. N Engl J Med., 340(11), 881-3